The name of Transylvanian Hound, according to etymologists comes from Persian, and the first written record of these dogs occurs in the 13th century. The name originally meant "catcher."
Originally, there were two types of Transylvanian Hounds: short and long-legged version. Both were utilized for hunting specific game. Only the long-legged variant has survived. It is characterized by a medium-sized, athletic, black body with distinctive tan and white patches on its muzzle, chest, extremities, and eyebrows. Its coat is short and dense. Its body is slightly longer than tall, and ideally its height is 22–26 in (55–65 cm). It is slightly rectangular-like with a flat back and straight chest. The Transylvanian Hound’s legs are straight and vertical, and their veins are visible. Its feet are large cushioned pads. Its tail is low-set, carried curved and never docked. Contrary to the general custom of docking the tail of a hunting dog, the Transylvanian Hound standard recommends the opposite, to leave it undocked. When a Transylvanian Hound is hunting, its tail is slightly upward. Its head is long, with a muzzle shorter than half the length of the head. Transylvanian Hound’s ideal weight is approximately 65 pounds (35 kg).
Transylvanian Hounds are good-natured, even-tempered and courageous with a strong-minded hunting instinct. They require a lot of exercise. Transylvanian Hounds prefer to work in pairs with their master and are most effective in an independent working environment. For instance, huntsmen would conceal themselves as the dog-handler would release the hounds in pairs, waiting for them to pick up the prey’s scent. The hounds would then drive the game towards the hunters. The Transylvanian Hound learned to "speak" over the centuries. When they chased smaller game, their bark was high pitched; while chasing larger game, it was deeper, throatier. They can run 40–45 mi (50–60 km) throughout a hunt. Their incredible persistence makes them excellent hunters.
Since the Transylvanian Hound is bred to hunt, and not much hunting is possible today, it needs long, strenuous exercise. Instead of a typical walk three times a day, it prefers one exhausting walk each day.